GA-1925

GA-1925

 ADRESSING THE STATE OF GLOBAL FORCED MIGRATION

(Sense-of-the-Assembly)

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WHEREAS, currently more than 68.5 million people have been forcibly displaced from their homes globally for reasons of war, violence, persecution, climate change, economic injustice, impoverishment, colonialism and its legacy, and exploitation, among others, so that the global state of forced migration and displacement has reached a crisis, a trend that continues to increase with no sign of a reversal; and

WHEREAS, more than 85% of those who are displaced are currently in countries that have little economic or structural capacity to provide care or services for them, while those nations who are far better able to do so, including the United States, have oftentimes placed restrictions on refugee admissions, asylum applications and other forms of immigration, even while benefitting economically from the impoverished and unstable countries from which many of these displaced persons flee; and

WHEREAS, policy debates and general discourse on migration in the United States, Europe, and, to a lesser extent, in Canada, have centered on justifications of restrictions that are racist, xenophobic, bigoted, and slanderous, and have specifically named people who are brown and black, from specific countries, and of certain faiths, particularly Islam, as excluded; and

WHEREAS, those countries that do host refugees and migrants often receive compensation from the US and Europe to keep the migrants from attempting to enter the US or Europe; and

WHEREAS, thus far, the global community has failed to address comprehensively and collaboratively the massive movement of people, most often for reasons of fear, self-interest, preservation of privilege, power, and wealth, enabling wealthy economies to benefit from the labor of migrants with little acknowledgement of obligations for the security and welfare of the migrants themselves; and

WHEREAS, due to restrictions and strict regulations, people take tremendous risks to reach safety and a new home, crossing deserts, seas, and other difficult terrain, for days, weeks, and months, only to meet reinforced and militarized borders, detention, and incarceration, likely rejection and forced return; not to mention the thousands who do not survive the journey at all; and

WHEREAS, the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) has a long history of providing welcome and creating robust structures of welcome for the resettlement of refugees; and

WHEREAS, global partners of the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) are advocating for and responding to the needs of the displaced and refugees among them, often with support through Global Ministries, Week of Compassion, and the United Church of Christ’s One Great Hour of Sharing offering, including:

  • People fleeing from high levels of structural, social and economic violence in El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Guatemala and other countries in Latin America and the Caribbean, and seeking asylum elsewhere to escape horrific conditions;
  • African migrants and refugees who have become bottle-necked in North Africa, including in Morocco, in their attempt to make their way to Europe;
  • Refugees from conflict in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Burundi, now living in camps in Tanzania;
  • Syrian and Iraqi displaced persons and refugees who have escaped war and conflict, now located throughout the Middle East and in Europe;
  • Generations of Palestinian refugees displaced and dispossessed of their homes and property following the wars of 1948 and 1967, in the Middle East and beyond;
  • People from throughout Southern Asia where millions are forced to migrate, and are trafficked and pushed into various forms of slavery;
  • People at risk from climate change in the Pacific Islands, including Tuvalu, where rising sea levels threaten to flood and eventually eliminate whole island countries;

WHEREAS, the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) is called to become an immigrant welcoming church (GA 1723); and, with the guidance of our global partners through Global Ministries, advocates for the rights and dignity of displaced persons and migrants the world over;

THEREFORE, BE IT RESOLVED that the 2019 General Assembly of the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) meeting in Des Moines, Iowa, July 20-24, 2019, affirm a vision of God’s family that is all-inclusive, accepting, and welcoming, recognizing the dignity of every human being; and rejects the divisive discourse of fear, xenophobia, bigotry, and racism that pervades the discourse on global forced migration, including as it relates to policy debates on immigration; and

 BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that the 2019 General Assembly call upon the members of the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) to engage the matter of global forced migration, to pray and learn about the current state of global forced migration using, among other resources, those made available through the church, specifically Global Ministries and the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) Refugee and Immigration Ministries; and

BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that the 2019 General Assembly urge members of the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) to participate in practicable ways to address the state of global forced migration through

  • support of denominational partners around the world who are responding to the needs of displaced people, whether they are refugees, migrants, internally displaced, asylum-seekers, or others, through Global Ministries and Week of Compassion;
  • engagement in refugee resettlement programs in the US including the Disciples Home Missions’ Refugee and Immigration Ministries;
  • advocacy for the rights of refugees everywhere based on the Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees (1951); and for Palestinian refugees specifically as stipulated in UN General Assembly Resolution 194 (1948), and for continued US funding for the United Nations Relief and Works Agency;
  • advocacy and action on issues of economic justice, climate justice, and immigration justice; and
  • efforts to dismantle racism, to learn about different cultures and religions, including Islam, and to counter any form of discrimination, bigotry, and xenophobia when encountered; and

FINALLY, BE IT RESOLVED that the 2019 General Assembly call upon the governments of the United States and Canada to take the issue of global forced migration seriously, leaving behind partisan discourse and promoting actively the principles of the United Nations’ Global Compact for Safe, Orderly, and Regular Migration, which seeks, among other things, to:

  • address all aspects of international migration, including the humanitarian, developmental, human rights-related and other aspects;
  • make an important contribution to global governance and enhance coordination on international migration;
  • present a framework for comprehensive international cooperation on migrants and human mobility; and
  • set out a range of actionable commitments, means of implementation and a framework for follow-up and review among Member States regarding international migration in all its dimensions,

and for Disciples members and settings to advocate for the US and Canada to work with the global community toward these goals.

Board of Directors of the Division of Overseas Ministries

 

_____________________________________________________________________

The General Board recommends that the General Assembly ADOPT GA-1925. (Discussion Time: 24 minutes)

 

BACKGROUND:

Migration, displacement, and exile have been present throughout human history, including in the Hebrew and Christian scriptures.  Some biblical examples include God’s call of Abram to leave Ur; Joseph’s brothers’ venture to Egypt to buy grain because of famine in Canaan; Exodus as a story of escape across borders; Noah and the threat of climate change; the Babylonian exile; and the Holy Family’s escape to safety soon after the birth of Jesus because of King Herod’s edict that all first-born male children under two born in the Bethlehem area be killed.

Jesus teaches us that the two greatest commandments are to “love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your mind, and with all your strength” and to “love your neighbor as yourself” (Mark 12:30-31).  When Jesus spoke of the judgment, he taught the reality of the realm of God by saying, “I was hungry and you gave me food, I was thirsty and you gave me something to drink, I was a stranger and you welcomed me, I was naked and you gave me clothing, I was sick and you took care of me, I was in prison and you visited me.’… ‘Truly I tell you, just as you did it to one of the least of these who are members of my family, you did it unto me’” (Matthew 25:35-36, 40).  The author of the letter to the Hebrews goes on to remind the faithful, “Do not neglect to show hospitality to strangers, for by doing that some have entertained angels without knowing it” (Hebrews 13:2). James warns against the sin of partiality that gives preference to those with resources over those without access. (James 2:9).

In our day, the United Nations High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR), in a 2017 report, estimates that more than 68.5 million people are forcibly displaced from their homes, including more than 5 million Palestinian refugees registered with the United Nations Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA).  This massive displacement is the largest in recorded history, and there is no sign of a reversal of the trend.  While almost two-thirds of those displaced remain within their own countries, most cannot return home.  The UNHCR report cites war, violence, and persecution as significant causes.  Additional factors for global forced migration include climate change, drought and famine, and impoverishment, among others.

The overwhelming majority of those who have been forcibly displaced outside their home countries currently reside in poorer, developing countries, barely able to provide services for their own populations, let alone influxes of new arrivals.  Countries and systems increasingly restrict the movement of people, denying them respite and dignity.  The global community needs to be engaged in creating and strengthening international systems to better accommodate this phenomenon so that the responsibilities, and the opportunities, of caring for humanity are shared.

Among economically developed countries, contemporary policy debates around immigration policies in the United States and Europe in particular, with few exceptions, have centered on stereotypes and fear, suggesting that newcomers would be “criminals and rapists,” violent terrorists, usurpers of public wealth and job opportunities.  Efforts, including presidential executive orders, have been made to disallow people from coming to the US based on their countries of origin and their religion.  Children have been separated from their families, with long-term impact on their mental health a result.  This is a not-so-subtle message that brown and black people, and Muslims, in particular, are not welcome, and a clear effort to preserve the privilege of some at the expense of many.

With this resolution, the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) recognizes the global scale of the issue, the human impact, the variety of causes, the responses of many of our global partners, and the abhorrence of racism, xenophobia, and bigotry that underlie barriers to addressing the matter with a sense of justice.

 References:

  • “Global Trends: Forced Displacement in 2017,” published by UNHCR,

http://www.unhcr.org/globaltrends2017/

  • Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees (1951),

https://www.unhcr.org/1951-refugee-convention.html

  • UN General Assembly Resolution 194 (1948),

https://www.unrwa.org/content/resolution-194

 

 

GA-1719

(Sense-of-the-Assembly)

 A CALL FOR THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH (DISICPLES OF CHRIST) TO ADVOCATE FOR THE RIGHTS OF CHILDREN LIVING UNDER ISRAELI MILITARY OCCUPATION

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WHEREAS, the witness of Scripture grants children a privileged place in the embrace of Jesus and the vision of the beloved community, and Jesus welcomed children and blessed them; he called us to become childlike in our reception of the Realm of God.[1]  Jesus himself was born in Palestine under Roman Occupation and, according to Matthew’s Gospel, escaped the slaughter of innocents by becoming a refugee in Egypt before returning to the land of his birth where he came of age.[2]  To read the Gospels is to become aware of both the blessing and the vulnerability of children. It is to know that God’s love was revealed in a child and, in particular, a child vulnerable to injustice and violence; and

WHEREAS, Kairos Palestine, written by Palestinian Christian theologians in 2009 and commended to the churches by the General Minister and President of the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) in a Pastoral Letter (April 2010), reminds us that “the communion of love says to every believer in spirit and in truth: if my brother is a prisoner I am a prisoner; if his home is destroyed, my home is destroyed; when my brother is killed, then I too am killed.”[3] Discipleship calls for solidarity with the vulnerable and the oppressed; and

WHEREAS, the General Assembly of the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) has repeatedly called for a just settlement of the Palestinian-Israeli conflict, for an end to prolonged Israeli military occupation of the West Bank, East Jerusalem, and Gaza, for the upholding of principles of non-violence, for the protection of human rights and for a just peace in Israel/Palestine where all peoples, both Israeli and Palestinians can live in freedom, equality and dignity; and

WHEREAS, the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, which the State of Israel has ratified, calls on states to “Treat every child deprived of liberty with humanity and respect for the inherent dignity of the human person, and in a manner which takes into account the needs of persons of his or her age,” to use arrest and imprisonment of children “only as a measure of last resort and for the shortest appropriate period of time,” to give detained children “prompt access to legal and other appropriate assistance, as well as the right to challenge the legality of the deprivation of his or her liberty” and “the right to maintain contact with his or her family through correspondence and visits,” and in no case to subject children to “torture or other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment,”[4]; and

WHEREAS, UNICEF in 2013 determined that the “Ill-treatment of Palestinian children in the Israeli military detention system appears to be widespread, systematic and institutionalized” and that this ill-treatment of children includes the use of blindfolds, hand-ties, strip searches, physical violence, verbal abuse and intimidation, denial of access to lawyers and parents prior to and during interrogation, and failure to inform children of their legal rights, such as their right to remain silent[5]; and

WHEREAS, subsequent update reports to UNICEF’s 2013 report have found that the situation has changed little for Palestinian children arrested by Israeli forces in the occupied West Bank[6][7]; and

WHEREAS, the United States Department of State in its annual country reports on human rights practices has, since 2007 in each annual country report on Israel and the Occupied Palestinian Territory, included data and information on ill-treatment and torture of Palestinian children in Israeli military detention, denial of fair trial rights in Israeli military courts, and other grave violations against children committed by Israeli forces and settlers; and

WHEREAS, Defense for Children International – Palestine and other international, Palestinian, and Israeli human rights organizations regularly publish reports confirming Israel’s widespread and systematic ill-treatment of Palestinian children arrested in the occupied West Bank, ill-treatment which includes heavily armed Israeli soldiers invading children’s homes and arresting them in the middle of the night; failure to notify parents of the reason for arrest or the location of detention; denial of access to lawyers during interrogation; failure to inform children of their rights; the use of position abuse, threats, and isolation by interrogators to coerce confessions; the use of solitary confinement for interrogation purposes; acceptance of confessions obtained by coercion or torture as legal courtroom evidence, even those confessions written in Hebrew and not understood by children coerced into signing them; and the routine transfer of Palestinian children out of the occupied Palestinian territories to prisons inside Israel in violation of international law[8]; and

WHEREAS, Israeli forces have held an average of 201 Palestinian children in custody each month since 2011, and this number spiked dramatically in late 2015 so that by the end of February 2016 the total had increased to 440, the highest number at any given point since the Israel Prison Service began releasing data in 2008[9]; and

WHEREAS, the U.S. Foreign Assistance Act specifies that no military assistance be given to any country that “engages in a consistent pattern of gross violation of internationally recognized human rights” and on at least eleven previous occasions the U.S. has withheld assistance from countries based on their human rights violations[10]; and

WHEREAS, the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) supported the ecumenical calls of Oct. 5, 2012, to request that Congress hold Israel accountable to the US Foreign Assistance Act and US Arms Export Control Act[11] and in May 5, 2016, urged the US to cease all arms allocations and transfers to the Middle East[12];

THEREFORE, BE IT RESOLVED that the General Assembly of the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) in the United States and Canada, meeting in Indianapolis, July 8-12, 2017, calls on members of the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) to learn about the plight of children in Palestine and the State of Israel; and

BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that the 2017 General Assembly calls on the government of the United States to adhere to its own established law – in this case, the U.S. Foreign Assistance Act – by withholding military assistance from the State of Israel due to its practices of arrest and detention of Palestinian children, requiring Israel to guarantee basic due process rights and exercise an absolute prohibition against torture and ill-treatment of detained children, ensuring that, from the moment of arrest, all operations and procedures are carried out in accordance with international juvenile justice standards, specifically the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child and that the General Minister and President of the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) communicate this call to the United States Congress, as well as the President, the Vice President, and the Secretary of State of the United States; and

BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that the 2017 General Assembly calls on the United States Senate to join with 194 other nations in ratifying the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child so as to bring stronger international pressure to bear on Israel to comply with the Convention’s provisions, in particular Articles 37 and 40 of the Convention governing the treatment of children held in detention and requests the General Minister and President of the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) communicate this call to the United States Senate, as well as the President, Vice President, and Secretary of State of the United States; and

BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that the 2017 General Assembly calls on the State of Israel to guarantee basic due process rights and exercise an absolute prohibition against torture and ill-treatment of detained children, ensuring that, from the moment of arrest, all operations and procedures are carried out in accordance with international juvenile justice standards, specifically the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, and requests the General Minister and President of the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) to communicate this call to the Prime Minister of Israel and the Israeli Ambassador to the United States, noting that among the practices in Israel’s military detention system that require change are the use of nighttime arrests in the child’s home, physical and verbal abuse, blindfolds and restraints, strip searches, solitary confinement, coerced confessions and confessions written in Hebrew, as well as the separation of detained children from their parents and legal counselors (including the transfer of Palestinian children to prisons within the State of Israel that their parents are not permitted to visit); and

BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that the 2017 General Assembly expresses gratitude to Global Ministries of the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) and United Church of Christ for its advocacy on behalf of children in Palestine and the State of Israel; and

FINALLY, BE IT RESOLVED that the 2017 General Assembly encourages continued partnership with U.S. and global ecumenical and interfaith partners, as well as with Palestinian and Israeli organizations that are advocating for the rights of children and providing educational, social, and psychological support for children and their families adversely affected by the occupation.

Division of Overseas Ministries

 

Background and Biblical Grounding

Kairos Palestine, written by Palestinian Christian theologians in 2009 and commended to the churches by the General Minister and President of the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) in a Pastoral Letter (April 2010), reminds us that “the communion of love says to every believer in spirit and in truth: if my brother is a prisoner I am a prisoner; if his home is destroyed, my home is destroyed; when my brother is killed, then I too am killed.”[13] Discipleship requires solidarity with the vulnerable and the oppressed.

As Palestinians living in the West Bank, East Jerusalem, and the Gaza Strip enter their 50th year under Israeli military occupation, instability and violence continue to define much of life for Palestinian children. While living under prolonged military occupation causes suffering to all Palestinians, the plight of children is of particular concern in light of the persistent grave human rights violations and violence that surround them and the physical and emotional trauma to which they are subject.  Generations of children have come of age as refugees living in refugee camps and behind walls.[14] Generations of children have waited at checkpoints to go to school and return home.[15] Generations of children have witnessed Israeli soldiers, many themselves young, harass and humiliate their parents.  Generations of children have witnessed the demolition of their families’ homes or businesses, theft of their land, or the destruction of their families’ farms and orchards.[16] Generations of children have been arrested by Israeli forces and prosecuted in an Israeli military detention system notorious for the systematic and widespread ill-treatment of children.[17]

Israel has the dubious distinction of being the only country in the world that systematically prosecutes children in military courts.  Since the year 2000, over 8,000 Palestinian children have been arrested and prosecuted in this system.[18]

In April 2016, Defense for Children International – Palestine (DCIP) published a study of 429 West Bank children detained between 2012 and 2015.  Three out of four children had endured some form of physical violence after being detained by Israeli forces.  In 97 percent of the cases, children had no parent or lawyer present during the interrogation process.  Interrogators used position abuse, threats, or isolation to coerce confessions from some of these children.  At least 66 children were held in solitary confinement for an average period of 13 days.  One child was held in isolation for 45 days.[19] Most often, they are accused of throwing stones, but many times, the charges are never made public.

In addition, there are several indirect acts of violence that children suffer.  According to the Israeli Committee Against House Demolitions (ICAHD), some 48,000 Palestinian houses have been demolished in the West Bank, Gaza, and East Jerusalem since 1967, leaving hundreds of thousands of people homeless,[20] including children. This situation has left devastating physical, psychological effects on children, which are irreversible.

Almost 60% of the population living in the West Bank and Gaza are refugees. More than half of them live in refugee camps. Since 1967, these refugee camps have been target for Israeli army operations that include the use of gas bombs, tear gas, and the harassment and arrest of men, women and children. Sometimes, families spend days looking for their children in detention centers. During this time, the violence that children face is horrendous, and much of that is not even officially reported because these are not formal prisons that are officially monitored.

Since 1967, Israel has operated two separate legal systems in the same territory.  Israeli Jewish settlers who (in violation of international law) reside in the West Bank enjoy protections provided by the Israeli civilian legal system.  In contrast, Palestinians in the West Bank are subject to Israeli military law, which fails to ensure and, in fact, denies basic and fundamental rights.  Palestinian children in the West Bank thus suffer abuses and constraints of a military detention system which no Israeli child living in the West Bank ever experiences.

The occupation thus creates a system where Palestinians living in the same occupied territory as Israeli settlers have inferior rights and protections under the law – a system where Palestinian children experience an environment of fear, dehumanization and violence that is contradictory to the flourishing of life in a nurturing environment, including opportunities to play safely, to access education and health care, to which all children, including Palestinian and Israeli children, aspire.

The witness of Scripture grants children a privileged place in the embrace of Jesus and the vision of the beloved community.  Jesus welcomed children and blessed them; he called us to become childlike in our reception of the Realm of God.[21] Jesus himself was born in Palestine under Roman Occupation and, according to Matthew’s Gospel, escaped the slaughter of innocents by becoming a refugee in Egypt before returning to the land of his birth where he came of age.[22] To read the Gospels is to become aware of both the blessing and the vulnerability of children.    It is to know that God’s love was revealed in a child and, in particular, a child vulnerable to injustice and violence.

Justice and peace are impeded today by those who hide behind a false equivalency, refusing to acknowledge the gross imbalance of military and police power between Israelis and Palestinians, or refusing to recognize that the impact of occupation falls with greater weight on the occupied, not the occupier. Justice and peace are impeded today by those who, in the face of failed peace processes and seemingly intractable obstacles, grow resigned and indifferent, as if God were impotent and historical change impossible.  To those lacking vision or energy to pursue this issue of justice, Kairos Palestine responds, “In the absence of hope, we cry out our cry of hope.  We believe in God, good and just.  We believe that God’s goodness will finally triumph over the evil of hate and of death that still persist in our land.”[23]

Notes:

 [1] Matthew 18:1-5; Matthew 19:13-15; Mark 10:13-16; Luke 18:15-15

[2] Matthew 2:1-23

[3]  Kairos Palestine: A Moment of Truth, A Word of Faith, Hope and Love from Palestinian Suffering, 2009, par. 5.2,  Kairos Palestine – A Moment of Truth

[4]  United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, Article 37, U.N. Convention of the Rights of the Child

[5]  UNICEF, Children in Israeli Military Detention – Observations and Recommendations – 6 March 2013, Children in Israeli Military Detention – Observations and Recommendations – 6 March 2013

[6]  UNICEF, Children in Military Detention – Bulletin No. 1 – October 2013, UNICEF oPt Children in Military Detention – Bulletin No. 1 – October 2013

[7]  UNICEF, Children in Israeli Military Detention – Observations and Recommendations – Bulletin No. 2 – February 2015, UNICEF oPt Children in Israeli Military Detention – Observations and Recommendations – Bulletin No. 2 – February 2015

[8]  Defense for Children International – Palestine, No Way to Treat a Child, Palestinian Children in the  Israeli Military Detention System, 14 April 2016,  Palestinian Children in the Israeli Military Detention System

[9] Defense of Children International – Palestine, Detention Bulletin – April 2016, publ. August 8, 2016,  Detention Bulletin – April 2016

[10] U.S. Campaign to End the Israeli Occupation, U.S. Military Aid to Israel: Policy Implications and Options, March 2012,  http://uscpr.org/campaign/government-affairs/resources/military-aid-policy-paper/ [11]  Oct. 5, 2012 Ecumenical Letter to Congress http://d3n8a8pro7vhmx.cloudfront.net/globalministries/legacy_url/7495/Military-aid-to-Israel-Oct-1-Final.pdf?1419969549

[12] “U.S. Diplomacy, not arms sales, needed in Middle East,” http://www.globalministries.org/u_s_diplomacy_not_arms_sales_needed_in_middle_east

[13]  Kairos Palestine: A Moment of Truth, A Word of Faith, Hope and Love from Palestinian Suffering, 2009, par. 5.2,  Kairos Palestine – A Moment of Truth

[14] United Nations Relief and Works Agency, multiple reports,  U.N. Relief and Works Agency

[15] U.N. Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs – Occupied Palestinian Territories web site contains useful, detailed reports about Israeli checkpoints, United Nations OCHA-OPT website

[16] Israeli Committee Against House Demolitions, multiple reports, ICAHD

[17] World Council of Churches, edited by John Calhoun and Rajan Solomon, Palestinian Prisoners:  A Question of Conscience, 2014

[18]  Defense for Children International – Palestine, report citing numbers of detained children

[19]  Defense for Children International – Palestine, No Way to Treat a Child, Palestinian Children in the Israeli Military Detention System, 14 April 2016,  Palestine Children in the Israeli Military Detention System

[20] Israeli Committee Against House Demolitions, “Guidelines for Effective Advocacy” http://icahd.org/what-can-you-do/guidelines-for-effective-lobbying/

[21] Matthew 18:1-5; Matthew 19:13-15; Mark 10:13-16; Luke 18:15-15

[22] Matthew 2:1-23

[23]  Kairos Palestine: A Moment of Truth, A Word of Faith, Hope and Love from Palestinian Suffering, 2009, par. 10,  Kairos Palestine – A Moment of Truth

Additional references

International Law

 

The General Board recommends that the General Assembly ADOPT GA-1719. (Discussion time: 24 min)